Senin, 22 April 2013

MATERI BAB 5-6 Bahasa Inggris Erlangga XI


Expression of Invitation
Sometimes, we have a situation and have to also invite some of friends to come. There are many situations that probably happened in our daily life, such as meeting, birthday party, graduation party etc. of course, we have to make an invitation for our guests. There will be two answers for them who are invited by us, they may come or accept the invitation and they may not come or decline the invitation. The situation will be divided into formal and informal. There is differences expression that  is  use in the different context of situation.
Expression to make, accept or decline invitiation
Formal Situation
Informal Situation
Making in vitiation
§ Would you like to…?
§ I would very happy if…?
§ We would be delighted if you…?
§ Would you care to..?
§ We would be pleased if you could…?
§ Would you care to…?
Making invitation
§ Why don’t you come to..
§ Like to come to …
§ Come and …
§ Shall we come to …
§ You must come to …
§ Let’s go…
Accepting invitation
§ That’s very kind of you
§ We’d like very much to….
§ What a delightful idea
§ With the greatest pleasure
§ Thank you very much for inviting me
§ It’s delightful to….
§ With pleasure
Accepting invitation
§ I would/will …
§ That would be very nice
§ OK,I will be there !
§ I’d like love to come.
§ All right.
§ Sure, I am coming

Declining invitation
§ I’m very sorry, I don’t
§ I’d like to, but ….
§ I’m afraid I’ve…
§ Already promised….
§ Thank you for asking me, but ….
§ Unfortunately  , I can’t….
Declining invitation
§ Sort, I can’t.
§ I’d love to, but …
§ I don’t think I can.
§ In wish I could, but …
§ Sorry, I am very busy
§ Sorry, may be next time
§ Thank you, but I can’t
§ Sorry, I don’t think I
§ Can’t make it
§ I’m so sorry I can make it

Dialogue
Arif  : Hi, Tika.
Tika  : Hi, Arif. What’s up friend?
Arif  : Hmmm, are you doing anything for next week?
Tika  : Nothing. Why?
Arif  : Hmm, like you know, next week we will have summer vacation to Bali and I think that I need you to be my date. Would you mind to come along with me?
Tika  : Really? I’d love it so much.
Arif  : Well, I will pick you at 7 a.m next week at school.
Tika  : OK. Thanks Arif.
Arif  : You’re welcome. Bye Tika and see you next week.
Tika  : See you, too. Bye-bye.
1.      What does Arif ask Tika to do ?
2.      Does Tika accept the invitation ?
3.      Write the expression making invitation based on the dialogue !
4.      Write the expression respond invitation based on the dialogue
5.      A : Would you like to come to my party ?
B : . .  . (refuse)
a. With pleasure                            c. sure
b. That’s very kind of you                        d. I’m afraid I cant

Expression Bargaining
Bargaining or haggling is a type of negotiation in which the buyer and seller of a good or service dispute the price which will be paid and the exact nature of the transaction that will take place, and eventually come to an agreement.
  §  Asking about something we want to buy :
-          Do you have any shoes ?
-          Is there any sugar ?
  §  Asking about the price :
-          How much it is ?
-          What’s the price of this shoes ?
-          How much does it cost ?
  §  Asking about the size :
-          Do you have a large one ?
-          Can I get a small one ?
  §  Asking about the material :
-          What kind of material is this bag made of ?
-          What is it made of ?
  §  Asking about the method of payment :
-          Can  I pay for it by credit card ?
-          Do you take a credit card ?
-          Can I pay for it in cash ?
  §  Bargaining :
-          How about fifty thousand rupiahs ?
-          Can you make it twenty – two thousand rupiahs ?
-          Can you make it fifty persent off ?
  §  Respond :
-          Yes, here they are ?
-          It’s seventy – nine thousand rupiahs
-          Here is the small one
-          It’s made of leather
-          We take credit card
-          Sorry, we can’t give it to you. It’s a cotton one

Dialogue
Eli     : Good morning. What can I do for you ?
Nike : Morning. Do you have any bags ?
Eli     : Yes, here they are. Ate you can choose one of them.
Nike : I like this one. But, do you have a small one ?
           I think its too big for me.
Eli     : Yes, of course. I have. There are three size for this one.
Nike : What is made of ?
Eli     : It’s made of skins snake. High quality.
Nike : Yeah, I think its look elegant. Do you have the red one ?
Eli     : No, just black and brown.
Nike : How much is it ?
Eli     : $GD 350
Nike : How about $GD 300 ?
Eli     : Sorry, it’s too cheaper. It has a good quality.
Nike : How about $GD 330
Eli     : Yes, you can take it.
Nike : Do you take a credit card ?
Eli     : We take credit cards
Nike : Ok. Wrap it for me, please.

1.      Where does the dialog take plece ?
2.      What is Nike going to buy ?
3.      How much does it cost ?
4.      What does she think of the price ?
5.      Based on the dialog, how much should Nike pay for the item after she bargains ?

Expressing Preference

Expressing preference is used to express preference or option about something people like.

The sentence patterns, are :
       a.       S + like + noun + better than noun
Example : my father likes peanut better than chocolate
                  He likes milk better than juice
Or
       b.      S + like + Ving + better than + Ving
Example : I like selling cake better than making cake
                  I like playing football better than swimming
    
       c.       S + prefer + noun + to + noun
Example : Rudy prefers apple to grapes
                  She prefers noodles to fried rice
Or
       d.      S + prefer + Ving + to + Ving
Example : Rudy prefers swimming to playing football
                  I prefer playing to staying at home
     
       e.       S + would rather + V1 + than + V1
Example : wenny would rather leave early than wait for him
                  I would rather go out than stay at home

       f.       S+ would prefer to + V1 + rather than + V1
Example : I would prefer to go shopping rather than stay at home

Dialogue
Eli        : I’m going to buy a novel. Do you want to come with me?
Davit   : I don’t read novel
Eli        : Why not ?
           Davit   : Because the story isn’t complete with picture and plot in novel too boring to me
           Eli        : Not bad. Novel can make you flows with the story and feel the character.
David  : I would rather comic
Eli        : that’s better than nothing., but you can try read a novel
Davit   : ok. I will try
Eli        : which do you like ? Naruto or Conan ?
Davit   : I like Naruto better than conan
Eli        : hahaa :D I like noruto too
1.      What is Eli going to buy ?
a. Newspaper                    c. Novel
b. Comic                          d. Dictionary
2.      Does Davit like read novel ?
3.      What does Davit prefer to do ?
a. Comic      b. Newspaper                  c. Novel     d. Dictionar

4.      A : Would you like coffe or tea ?
B : . . .

5.      A : . . .
B : I prefer studying English to math


Expressing certainty
Below are some expressions to ask about certainty :
§  Are you sure that uncle john is coming soon ?
§  Is it correct that her mother passed away ?
§  Do you  think that novia will be the winner ?
§  Do you believe that he is married ?

Some of the responses are :
§  Responses of certainty.
        -          Yes. I’m quite sure
        -          Yes. I’m certain
        -          Yes. I’m absolutely sure
        -          Yes. Of course
        -          Yes. Without a doubt
§  Responses of uncertainty.
        -          It’s  doubtful
        -          I doubt it
        -          I’m not really sure    
        -          I have my doubts
        -          Perhaps
        -          Possibly

Dialogue
Tom     : Look ! the sky is cloudy now. I’m sure, it is going to rain soon.
           Eli        : I don’t think so. Yesterday, the sky was dark and  it didn’t rain.
Tom     : But, today is going to rain. Look over there !
Eli        : Yes, you’re right. Today it is going to rain !
Tom     :Anyway , will you join the English club ?
Eli        : I don’t know. I’m not sure
Tom     : Why ?
           Eli        : Actually, I had enough money. But my sister was sick and my mother borrowed some of it.        As you know, my mother has been a single parents since a year ago.
           Tom     : I’m sorry to hear that. But would you like to borrow some money from me ?
Eli        : Is it all right ?
Tom     : Sure !
Eli         : Thank you, Tom. I will return it as soon as I have some money
Tom     : I trust you

1.      What does Eli think about the weather ?
2.      A : Are you sure you have submitted your homework ?
B : . . .
a. I don’t know what to say
b. I have to say that I disagree with that
c. I have no idea about that
d. I’m sure I have put it on your desk, mam.
3.      What is the weather like ?
4.      How does Tom offer to help Eli ?
5.      A : Do you  think that novia will be the winner ?
B : . . .
a. I disagree with that
b. I have no opinion
c. Yes, I think
d. That’s a good idea


Expression Compliment
Giving Complaiments
§  That’s a very nice …(dress)
§  Great job on the …(presentation).
§  You look very good in … (that new hair-do).
§  This dish is delicious, my compliments to the chef.
§  That … (tie) looks great on you.
Responses to compliments
§  How kind of you to say so
§  Thank you.
§  I’m glad you like it.
§  It was nothing really. (an expression of modesty and humility)
Learn the expressions used for giving compliments to others. Practice by saying them loudly.
§  Your performance on the stage is amazing.
§  How wonderful to listen to  your  great voice.
§  How mar vellous .
§  Great ! (You look great) / Great for  you.
§  Terrific ! (Hey, that’s terrific !)
§  Fantastic!
§  Smashing.
§  That’s really remarkable /well  done.
Now, learn the expressions  use for responding to compliments.
§  It’s very kind of you to say so.
§  Thank you.
§  I can say how pleased (delighted) I am.
§  I’m delighted  to hear  that.
§  Thank for your compliment.

Dialogue
Guest   : Good night, mam
Staff    : Good night
Guest   : That’s a very nice dress
Staff    : Thank you very much.
Guest   : What do you think about her voice ?
Staff    : How wonderful to listen to her great voice
Guest    : Yes, her voice is very nice and her performance on the stage is amazing
Staff     : And what about your voice. Your voice are great like her, aren’t you ?
Staff    : Thank you sir, how kind of you to say so.

1.      Staff          : What a beautiful dress, Mrs. Elliot
Guest         : . . .
a. Thanks, I’m glad you like it.     c. Yes, I think
b. Fantastic  !                                d. I disagree with that
2.      A   : Your English is very good.
B   : .  . .
a. How kind of you to say so        c. Thank you very much
b. Well done                                  d. That’s good idea
3.      Guest         : What do you think about her voice ?
Staff          :  . . .
4.      What is the topic based on the dialogue ?
5.      Does Staff compliment about performance the guest ?


Expression Asking And Giving Opinion

Opinion is including  the words of opinion and argument/ reasons.

Formal Situation
Informal Situation
Asking opinion
§ Have you got any comments on
§ Do you have any idea?
§ Do you have any opinion on . . .
§ Would you give me your opinion on…….?
§ What is your reaction to …
§ What is your opinion about….?
§ What are you feeling about….?
§ What are your views on…….?
§ Please give me your frank opinion ?
Asking Opinion
§ What do you think of…….?
§ What do you think about…?
§ What is your opinion?
§ Why do they behave like that?
§ Do you think it’s going?
§ How do you like?
§ How was the trip?
§ How do you think of Rina’s idea ?
§ How do you feel about this dicition ?
Giving opinion
§ I personally believe …..
§ I personally consider ….
§ I personally think /feel ….
§ I hold the opinion ….
§ My own view of the matter is ...
§ Well, personally …….
§ If I had my view, I would …..

Giving opinion
§ I think I like it.
§ I don’t think I care for it.
§ I think it’s good/nice/terrific..
§ I think that awful/not nice/terrible……
§ I don’t think much of it.
§ I think that……..
§ In my opinion, I would rather…
§ In my case …..
§ What I’m more concerned with ….
§ What I have in my mind is…
§ The way I see is that……
§ No everyone will agree with me, but ….
§ To my mind …..
§ From my point of view …
§ If you aks me, I feel …
§ Absolutely ………


Dialogue
Ani : Eli, what are you doing ?
Eli  : I’m writing a proposal for our holiday.
Ani : Where we will go ?
Eli  : I think Singapore is the nice place
Ani : I don’t think so. In my opinion, Malaysia is more interesting.
Eli  : I’m afraid. I disagree with you. In Singapore we can visit the Singapore Flyer, Universal Studio, China Town and so many wonderful place.
Ani : But, don’t you know ? Malaysia has some interesting place. You can enjoy view of Langkawi Island by Sky Way or Cable Car, or visit the Las Vegas of Malaysia “Genting Highland” and Batu Caves.
Eli : But in Singapore we can visit Underwater World
Ani :We can find it too in Malaysia there is a waterworld in Langkawi.
Eli  : Are you sure it’s more interesting ?
Ani : Yes, of course. Trust me, it wouldn’t disappointed.
Eli : Ok. I will make our destination this year is Malaysia.

1.      What will Ani and Eli do in holiday ?
2.      Mention some interesting places in Malaysia based on the dialog !
3.      Write the expression giving opinion based on the dialogue !
4.      What do you thimk of ................. ?
a. Play tennis                     b. Go jogging
c. Going to the beach        d. Swim
5.      Eric : I think our city is very hot at the moment.
Eric : I don’t think so ................ Our city is much cooler than other cities in this country.
a. I know it                        c. He forget it
b. I am thinking of                        d. In my opinion
Expression Agreement and Disagreement
Agreement
Disagreement
§  I agree
§  I am with you
§  I think so 
§  It certainly is
§  That is what I was thinking
§  I am of the same opinion
§  Yes, that’s what I have been thinking
§  I do agree with you
§  That’s good idea
§  I don’t have any objections with that

§  I disagree 
§  I am not with you
§  I can agree with…
§  I can’t be along with you
§  I wouldn’t say that
§  I don’t think so 
§  I don’t entirely agree with …
§  I see what you mean, but …
§  I agree, but ……
§  Yes, but on the other hand…
§  Yes, but don’t you think …..


Dialogue
Ethan   : Hy Eli
Eli        : Hy Ethan. What are you doing here ?
Ethan   : I’m reading novel.
Eli        : What is the title ? may be I know that
Ethan   : This is Fairis, created by Esti Kinasih. Did you read this novel before ?
Eli        : Yes, I did. I like the plot of story in this novel. Which do you like ? Davi or Alfa ?
Ethan   : I think I choose Alfa, because he is humoris and a good boy. How  about with you ?
Eli        : I disagree with you. I more interesting to Davi. He is not only hansome but also smart and doesn’t  like we think, very mysterious.
Ethan   : Alfa also good looking. But we didn’t mind.
Eli        : Did you know Luna Torasingu ?
Ethan   : Yes, I know. He is writer. I was read Her novel, and not bad.
Eli        : Do you think the novelis Indonesia has a good talent ?
Ethan   : Yes, That is what I was thinking

1.      What is topic that Eli and Ethan talking about ?
a. Novel                             c. Comic
b. Boy friend                     d. novelis
2.      Does Eli agree with Ethan ?
3.      A : I think Singapore is the nice place
B: . . . But Malaysia more interesting than Singapore.
a. I disagree                       c. I agree
b. I don’t think so             d. thank you
4.      Write 5 expression disagreement !
5.      Choose the expresson agreement !
a. I disagree with you
b. I don’t think so
c. I agree. But Bali more interesting
d. I don’t have any objections with that

Describing a Process or Procedures
Describing a process or procedures means writing about how something is made or how something happens. Examples: the rainwater cycle, how coffee is grown, how glass is made, getting a driving license, starting a business.
When you explain the step-by-step order of how things happen or how things get done, you are describing a process - how to get a visa, how to mend a puncture, how to make coffee, how glass is made.
1.      Make a rough list of the steps in the right order
2.      Start with an introductory sentence or two about the process - how important it is, how simple it is, etc.  
* In this essay, I will describe how paper is made.
* I will now explain how a photocopier works.
* Building a road is a long process, but it can be divided into four main stages.
3.      Use sequence words - first, next, after that, before, then, finally,
*The first stage in making glass is … In this stage, the sand is cleaned and weighed…Next….After that….In the final stage, the glass is….
4.      Finish with a concluding sentence or two.   
 * As you can see, paper manufacture is a difficult process. If you follow the steps described then you will be successful.
 * As I have described, there are many steps involved in supplying water to a city. By using the step by step approach outlined above you can make sure of a sfe supply.
5.      Use the correct voice - passive or active. Read the instructions carefully.
Active
Passive
The farmer sends the milk to the factory
The milk is sent to the factory.
Place the container on the mat.
The container should be placed on a mat.
      Example:

These steps use the active voice, or imperative.
Popcorn
Popcorn is something you often eat when you watch a movie at a cinema. It is very easy to make perfect popcorn if follow the correct procedure.
First, put three tablespoons of oil in a large pot. Then, heat the oil on a high flame until one kernel of popcorn pops when you drop it into the hot oil. Now, pour a quarter cup of popcorn into the pot and cover the pot with a lid. Reduce the flame and gently shake the pot. Continue shaking until the corn has popped. Finally, empty the popcorn into a large bowl and add melted butter and salt.
As you can see making popcorn is very simple if you follow the steps above. Enjoy your movie!
These steps use the passive voice.
Want Coffee?
Coffee is a very popular drink around the world. People drink it at all times of the day. There are several kinds of coffee, but I am now going to describe how instant coffee is produced.
First, the coffee beans are picked from the trees and dried in the sun. Then, the beans are roasted and then cooled rapidly before being ground. The beans are then mixed with hot water and the mixture is strained before it is frozen. Finally, the frozen mixture is ground and then dried in a vacuum before it is packed into jars. The coffee is now ready to be sold in shops.
Instant coffee is not quite as good as real coffee, but it is very popular and saves a lot of time. The manufacturers have done most of the steps for us!

Pineapple with caramel sauce
§  First, peel the pineapple and coat the sugar.
§  Next, heat the butter in a frying pan and turn the pineapple for 5 minutes on each side.
§  Then, add some cream, bring to the boil, and stie well.
§  After that, add the apple juice to the pan, add to the boil, and cook until there is very little left.
§  Finally, pour the sauce over the pineapple and serve.

1.      What is the main ingredient of the recipe ?
2.      What should we do after adding the cream  ?
a. pour the sauce over the pineapple and serve.
b. add the apple juice to the pan, add to the boil, and cook until there is very little left.
c. peel the pineapple and coat the sugar
d. heat the butter in a frying pan

3.      What is the first step to make Pineapple with caramel sauce ?
4.      How long should we fry the pineapple ?
a. 3 minutes                       c. 4 minutes
b. 5 minutes                       d. 6 minutes

5.      What is the mixture of the sauce ?

Giving Advice and Suggestions
Asking 
Giving 
What do you recomend we do about ... ? 
I would recommend that you ... 
Waht would you advice us to do? 
My advice would be to ... 
Do you have any suggestions? 
May I suggest that we ... 
What would you do about ...? 
If I were you, I would ... 
Why don’t you . .
I advice you to …
Perhaps you could …
If I were you, I would …
I advice you to…
I suggest you to …
You had better …

Accepting advice 
Rejecting advice 
Yes, I agree with that. 
I'm sorry, i can't agree with that. 
That sounds like a good idea! 
I don't think that's a good idea. 
OK, why don't we do that. 
I don't think we should do that. 
That's very interesting. 
That's very interesting, but ... 
Thank you for your advice
That would be nice
I would rather not, if you don’t mind
That seems all night

Mr.adhi is complaining about his headache and Nurse Widhi is giving her advice.

Nurse Widhi    : Good morning Mr. Adhi, introduce my name nurse Widhi,
Mr Adhi          : Good morning Nurse Widhi, I’m fine.
Nurse Widhi    : Apparently you’re thinking about something? If I may know what you think?
Mr. Adhi         : I’m afraid my headaches will be getting worse, nurse.
Nurse Adhi     : Have you taken your medicine?
Mr. Adhi         : No, I haven’t. because I have not had breakfast, nurse.
Nurse Widhi  : You should immediately eat breakfast, so you can take medication, by taking medicine regularly, I’m sure you will be better soon.
Mr. Adhi         : Ok, I will do it now, thanks for you suggestion.
Nurse Widhi    : You are welcome, later today I will be back again to see your condition. The next time you need help just find me in a nursing.
Mr. Adhi: Ok. Nurse Widhi

Promptly at 1:00 pm, room nurse Widhi come to Mr. Adhi to see the condition of Mr. Adhi

Nurse Widhi    : Excuse me Mr. Adhi, may I come in?
Mr. Adhi         : Yes, please.
Nurse Widhi    : You can rest?
Mr. Adhi         : Yes Nurse
Nurse Widhi    : Nothing you complaining now?
Mr. Adhi         : No sisters, I feel better now
Nurse Widhi    : Ok, my suggestion is always keep your condition, regular eating and restsufficiently
Mr. Adhi         : Well my sisters would implement suggestions, thanks for the advice.
Nurse Widhi    : you are welcome, happy to rest and get well

1.      What did Nurse suggest to adhi ?
2.      What happened to adhi headaches ?
3.      Mention some expressions which are used in asking for ang giving suggestion !

Expressing Necessity and Obligation
 Some expressions  commonly used to express obligations are as follows:
§  I must try it again
§  Do you have to go now ? yes, I do
§  I have to keep it
§  You have to come on time
§  It is necessary for us to be there
But, if you think it is not a necessary think, you can say :
§  You don’t have to go now
§  He doesn’t have to do it
§  You don’t need to go to school because it’s a holiday
§  It is not necessary for us to go now

a.       Positive Obligations
           1.      S +must+verb
           Example: I must save my money.

           2.      S+have/has to+verb
           Examples:You have to come on time.
    He has to meet the manager at 7 a.m.
           3.      S+need to+verb
           Examples: I need to visit the landslide victims
      He needs to look at the map.
b.      Negative Obligation.
S+must not+ verb
Example: You must not smoke here.

c.       No Obligation
           1.      S+don’t have+verb
           Example: You don’t have to go to school because it’s a holiday.

           2.      S+don’t need to+verb
            Example: You don’t need to do it.
d.      Past Obligation
S+had to+verb
Example: I had to take part in the meeting last night.

1.      He _____ go to sleep yet.
a. must                         c. doesn't have got to
b. doesn't must                        d. doesn't have to
2.      We ___ see as many sites as we can on this trip!
a. have to                     c. don't must to
b. must not have to     d. have got not to
3.      She ____ call after 10pm.
a. has not got to          c. must not
b. must have                d. have to
4.      You and I ___ make it to school on time!
a. has to                       c. have to
b. have not                  d. don't must to
5.      Do ____ stop?
a. we must                   c. we have got to
b. we have to               d. we have not

Expressions of Convincing and Persuading people
The verbs ‘convince’ and ‘persuade’ are very similar in meaning, but there is a difference in how we use them.
After ‘persuade’ we use the structure
to + infinitive:
  • I persuaded them to stay for another drink.
  • He persuaded her not to take the job.
After ‘convince’ we cannot use a verb infinitive. We say ‘convince someone that‘:
   §  She convinced the police that she was telling the truth.
   §  He convinced her that it was the right thing to do.
Both of the above sentence would also be correct without ‘that’:
   §  She convinced the police she was telling the truth.
   §  He convinced her it was the right thing to do.

1.      I'm not  (persuaded/convinced)  that moving to London is a good idea. 
2.       My parents (persuaded/convinced)  me to study German, even though I was against it at first.
3.       My trip to Austria and Switzerland (persuaded/convinced)  me that German was a useful language to know. 
4.       Steven (persuaded/convinced) his boss to give him time off at Easter.
5.       My sister persuaded me (not to buy/to not buy/ not buying)  a car by arguing that it was unnecessary and that cycling was much healthier.